X Wing Papercraft Pdf 12
The Do X was a semi-cantilever monoplane. The Do X had an all-duralumin hull, with wings composed of a steel-reinforced duralumin framework covered in heavy linen fabric, covered with aluminium paint.
X Wing Papercraft Pdf 12
It was initially powered by twelve 391 kW (524 hp) Siemens-built Bristol Jupiter radial engines in tandem push-pull configuration mountings, with six tractor propellers and six pushers mounted on six strut-mounted nacelles above the wing. The nacelles were joined by an auxiliary wing to stabilise the mountings. The air-cooled Jupiter engines were prone to overheating and could barely lift the Do X to an altitude of 425 m (1,394 ft). The engines were managed by a flight engineer, who controlled the 12 throttles and monitored the 12 sets of gauges. The pilot would relay a request to the engineer to adjust the power setting, in a manner similar to the system used on maritime vessels, using an engine order telegraph. Many aspects of the aircraft echoed nautical arrangements of the time, including the flight deck, which bore a strong resemblance to the bridge of a vessel. After completing 103 flights in 1930, the Do X was refitted with 455 kW (610 hp) Curtiss V-1570 "Conqueror" water-cooled V-12 engines. Only then was it able to reach the altitude of 500 m (1,600 ft) necessary to cross the Atlantic. Dornier designed the flying boat to carry 66 passengers on long-distance flights or 100 passengers on short flights.
The luxurious passenger accommodation approached the standards of transatlantic liners. There were three decks. On the main deck was a smoking room with its own wet bar, a dining salon, and seating for the 66 passengers which could also be converted to sleeping berths for night flights. Aft of the passenger spaces was an all-electric galley, lavatories, and cargo hold. The cockpit, navigational office, engine control and radio rooms were on the upper deck. The lower deck held fuel tanks and nine watertight compartments, only seven of which were needed to provide full flotation. Similar to the later Boeing 314, the Do X lacked conventional wing floats, instead using fuselage mounted "stub wings" to stabilise the craft in the water, which also doubled as embarkation platforms for passengers.
A proposed improved version of the Do X designated the Dornier Do 20, in which the pylon-mounted engines were to be replaced by four pairs of 750 kW (1,000 hp) diesel engines in nacelles fared into the wing's leading edge and driving four propellers, was promoted in 1936, but never advanced beyond a design study.
To introduce the airliner to the potential United States market the Do X took off from Friedrichshafen, Germany, on 3 November 1930, under the command of Friedrich Christiansen for a transatlantic test flight to New York. The route took the Do X to the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, France, Spain, and Portugal. The journey was interrupted at Lisbon on 29 November, when a tarpaulin made contact with a hot exhaust pipe and started a fire that consumed most of the left wing. After sitting in Lisbon harbour for six weeks while new parts were fabricated and the damage repaired, the flying boat continued with several further mishaps and delays along the Western coast of Africa and by 5 June 1931 had reached the islands of Cape Verde, from which it crossed the ocean to Natal in Brazil.
Pure origami is an ancient and elegant art, whereas making paper airplanes is often considered a relatively modern recreation. Origami focuses on beauty, while the performance of a paper airplane is usually its most important attribute. This clearly written, carefully illustrated how-to book combines the two activities to produce an up-to-date innovation: artfully constructed origami airplanes that actually fly.The author first shows you how to construct the Jet Tail, an important basic feature that is needed for many of the more difficult models diagrammed later. This is followed by detailed, step-by-step directions and diagrams for creating each of 12 different models: space shuttle, futuristic shuttle, flying wing, delta wing-jet, fighter plane, interceptor, double tail fighter, dart plane, fighter plane with engines, futuristic fighter, and two different jets.The projects progress in level of difficulty; as you master the simpler models you will be developing the skills you need to assemble the more complicated craft. The book also includes valuable suggestions about types of paper to use, useful hints that help ensure success, and solutions to common problems paperfolders may encounter.
While there have been statements that the book caused Japan and other nations to revise their codes at once, Kahn (2004) undermined such a myth by showing the number of solutions in the British archives of secret messages of Japan and Germany did not decrease after the publication of the book (Kahn p.131-136) (A skeptical view on such a traditional "offhand statements" is also presented by the editor of ASA, Wayne G. Barker (ed.), The History of Codes and Ciphers in the United States during the Period between the World Wars, Part I. 1919-1929 p.137). Materials in Japanese archives appear to support Kahn's statements that Japan had been updating its diplomatic cryptosystems every couple of years and did not immediately change to new ones.
The newspaper coverage appears to have roused those concerned from inactivity. On 28 July, Sakuma drafted replies to possible questions that may be brought up in the parliament about the issue and on 31 July further inquiries were made to the ambassador in the US. On 29 July, Ito Risaburo, a naval officer, renewed his proposal for the Foreign Ministry to use cipher machines. On 15 August, instructions about security of code were drafted and sent to overseas establishments on 17 September. These will be described in the following.
6. Cryptologic Service (C14010457500) ... Importance of codes/ciphers and prevention of codebreaking are discussed in view of The American Black Chamber. The following observation is made regarding preparation of new codes/ciphers.
Yardley-related materials are under Reference Codes B13080930400, B13080930500, and B13080930600 (referred to as Yardley file (1), (2), and (3) herein; the page numbers are those of digital images). The following lists some related documents.
In this paper, abaca strands were used as reinforcement of polypropylene matrix and their tensile mechanical properties were studied. It was found relevant increments on the tensile properties of the abaca strand-PP composites despite the lack of good adhesion at fiber-matrix interface. Afterwards, it was stated the influence of using maleated polypropylene (MAPP) as compatibilizer to promote the interaction between abaca strands and polypropylene. The intrinsic mechanical properties of the reinforcement were evaluated and used for modeling both the tensile strength and elastic modulus of the composites. For these cases, the compatibility factor for the ultimate tensile strength was deduced from the modified rule of mixtures. Additionally, the experimental fiber orientation coefficient was measured, allowing determining the interfacial shear strengths of the composites and the critical fiber length of the abaca strand reinforcement. The mechanical improvement was compared to that obtained for fiberglass-reinforced PP composites and evaluated under an economical and technical point of view.
The use of natural fibers in reinforced composites to produce eco-friendly materials is gaining more attention due to their attractive features such as low cost, low density and good mechanical properties, among others. This work thus investigates the potential of waste abaca (Manila hemp) fiber as reinforcing agent in an inorganic aluminosilicate material known as geopolymer. In this study, the waste fibers were subjected to different chemical treatments to modify the surface characteristics and to improve the adhesion with the fly ash-based geopolymer matrix. Definitive screening design of experiment was used to investigate the effect of successive chemical treatment of the fiber on its tensile strength considering the following factors: (1) NaOH pretreatment; (2) soaking time in aluminum salt solution; and (3) final pH of the slurry. The results show that the abaca fiber without alkali pretreatment, soaked for 12 h in Al2(SO4)3 solution and adjusted to pH 6 exhibited the highest tensile strength among the treated fibers. Test results confirmed that the chemical treatment removes the lignin, pectin and hemicellulose, as well as makes the surface rougher with the deposition of aluminum compounds. This improves the interfacial bonding between geopolymer matrix and the abaca fiber, while the geopolymer protects the treated fiber from thermal degradation. PMID:28772936
An automatic abalone grading algorithm that estimates abalone weights on the basis of computer vision using 2D images is developed and tested. The algorithm overcomes the problems experienced by conventional abalone grading methods that utilize manual sorting and mechanical automatic grading. To design an optimal algorithm, a regression formula and R(2) value were investigated by performing a regression analysis for each of total length, body width, thickness, view area, and actual volume against abalone weights. The R(2) value between the actual volume and abalone weight was 0.999, showing a relatively high correlation. As a result, to easily estimate the actual volumes of abalones based on computer vision, the volumes were calculated under the assumption that abalone shapes are half-oblate ellipsoids, and a regression formula was derived to estimate the volumes of abalones through linear regression analysis between the calculated and actual volumes. The final automatic abalone grading algorithm is designed using the abalone vol